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The Civil War in


Chapter 1
Chapter 2
Chapter 3
Chapter 4
Chapter 5
Chapter 6
Chapter 7
Chapter 8
Chapter 9
Chapter 10
Chapter 11
Chapter 12
Chapter 13
Chapter 14
Chapter 15
Chapter 16
Chapter 17
Chapter 18
Chapter 19
Chapter 20
Chapter 21
Chapter 22

Chapter 23
Chapter 24
Chapter 25

Chapter 26

Chapter 27

Chapter 28

Chapter 29

Chapter 30

Chapter 31

Appendix 1

Appendix 2
Index of persons

THE Civil War in Hampshire (1642-45) AND THE STORY OF BASING HOUSE BY REV. G. N. GODWIN, B.D.

Chapter II - The Siege and surrender of Portsmouth

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At the time of the raising of the King's standard at Nottingham on August 22, 1642, Portsmouth was held by one whose course, from first to last — devious, uncer- tain, and unprincipled — shed disgrace upon the nobleness of his name, and upon the honourable profession of a soldier. This man was Lord Goring, than whom, on account of his private vices of drunkenness, cruelty, and rapacity, and of his political timidity and treachery, scarcely any one was more unworthy to be trusted with any important matters for counsel or execution. Warburton calls him " this extraordinarily gifted and unprincipled man."

Clarendon says that his premature declaration at Portsmouth on August 2, 1642, obliged the King to declare war " before he!jwas in any way ripe for action," and wishes, after his repeated treachery, " that there might be no more occasion to mention him hereafter."

In the previous year he had been a traitor to the King, and had betrayed the Army Plot. The Parliament now felt sure of him ; but he was all the while in treaty with the King. Queen Henrietta Maria nearly lost her life in trying to flee from Whitehall to Portsmouth, to place herself under his protection. This plan he duly disclosed to the Parliament, and received either £4000 or £5030, to be spent upon the fortifications, whilst "the Queen gave him' £3000and some valuable jewels to gain over the garrison " (Warburton). Parliament ordered the forces in Wiltshire and Hampshire to advance nearer to Portsmouth; and on January 12, 1642, Goring received orders to hold the town against any demands or force of the King. Colonel Norton, of Southwick Park, warned the House of Commons that Goring was fortifying and raising batteries towards the land, "and, in short, was not to be trusted," Goring hereupon came to London, and, by a most plausible speech, completely deceived the Parliament, so that " not without some apology for troubling him, they desired him again to repair to his government, and to finish those works which were necessary for the safety of the place, and gratified him with consenting to all the propositions he made in behalf of his garrison, and paid him a good sum of money for their arrears. With which, and being privately assured (which was indeed resolved on) that he should be Lieutenant-General of their Horse in their new Army, when it should be formed, he departed again to Portsmouth ; in the meantime assuring his Majesty, by those who were trusted between them, ' That he would be speedily in a posture to make any such declaration for his service as he should be required,' which he was forced to do sooner than he was provided for, though not sooner than he had reason to expect." (Clarendon).

Goring, on receiving his commission as Lieutenant-General of the Horse, asked to be allowed to remain at Portsmouth as long as possible, in order to complete the defences. When he was at last ordered to come to London without delay, he threw off the mask, and wrote " a jolly letter " to Lord Kimbolton (Manchester), saying *' that he had received the command of that garrison from the King, and that he could not be absent from it without his leave," and concluded " with some good counsel to the Lord."

The Parliament was much grieved at the loss of the only fortress in England, which was also a seaport ; and the King at York was equally pleased, expecting that Goring would have laid in all necessary stores, and would be able to hold out for three or four months at least.

This and other considerations induced the King to issue a proclamation calling on his loyal subjects to rally round his standard at Nottingham on August 22, 1642, and to send the Marquis of Hertford, with Lord Seymour, his brother. Lord Pawlet, Hopton, Stawel, Coventry, Berkeley, Windham, and some other gentlemen " of the prime quality and interest in the Western parts," into those districts to raise regiments for his service. But no sooner had the standard been displayed at Nottingham than " his Majesty received intelligence that Portsmouth was so straightly besieged by sea and land that it would be reduced in a very few days except it were relieved. For the truth is, Colonel Goring, though he had sufficient warning, and sufficient supplies of money to put that place into a posture, had relied too much upon probable and casual assistance, and neglected to do that himself which a vigilant officer would have done ; and albeit his chief dependence was both for money and provisions from the Isle of Wight, yet he was careless to secure those small castles and blockhouses that guarded the passage, which, revolting to the Parliament as soon as he declared for the King, cut off those dependencies ; so that he had neither men enough to do ordinary duty, nor provisions enough for those few for any considerable time. And at the same time with this news of Portsmouth, arrived certain advertisements, that the Marquis of Hertford and all his forces in the West, irom whom only the King hoped that Portsmouth should be relieved, was driven out of Somersetshire, where his power and interest was believed was unquestionable, into Dorsetshire ; and there besieged in Sherborne Castle." (Clarendon.)

There are numerous accounts and news-letters of the siege of Portsmouth, from which we must try to gather a connected story.

On August 2, the date of Goring's declaration for " the King alone," there were in garrison 300 soldiers, 100 townsmen able to bear arms, and in the remainder of Portsea Island about 100 more. There were about 50 officers, with their servants. The Governor and officers possessed more than 50 horses ; but there was only two days' provision in the town, which was unfortified and very weak in many places. Colonel Goring ordered all men able to bear arms or to find substitutes to meet in the Bowling Green, on pain of imprisonment, knowing full well that only Cavaliers would put in an appearance. The friends of the Parliament were speedily disarmed, and 40 horsemen, with pistols and carbines, admitted into the garrison. At three o'clock on that August afternoon the Colonel addressed the meeting, urging them to stand fast for the King, promising money to the Cavaliers, and leave to depart to the adherents of the Parliament. The military chest was not empty, for Goring had received £5030, voted on June 30, from the Parliament for the payment of arrears to the garrison and for strengthening the fortifications (which he showed publicly), and £9000 from Mr. Weston, brother to the Earl of Portland, the Royalist Governor of the Isle of Wight. (Is this an error for the amount which he received from the Queen ?) At the conclusion of his harangue some of the soldiers shouted in token of assent ; but others were discontented, and strife ran high in the town. Colonel Goring at once sent out an officer to enlist recruits in the county; but only those who professed their willingness to fight for the King were admitted within the walls. All the soldiers and every townsman except three or four declared for the King.

According to information received by the House of Commons on August 8, most of the Corporation willingly took the oath of allegiance to the King which Goring proposed to them ; but Mr. Peek (a minister), Mr. Odell, Mr. Goodfellow, and several others refused it, and were in consequence obliged to leave the town. The Mayor took his wife and family to Salisbury, intending to leave them there, and to return himself to Portsmouth, after doing his utmost to raise men and money for the King. A rumour was current that 5000 French soldiers would soon land to reinforce the garrison, and Mr. Jermyn, the Queen's favourite, was endeavouring to raise 4000 men at Rotterdam to strengthen Colonel Goring. Twenty horsemen were posted at Port- bridge, with orders to keep guard both by night and by day. The bridge, at which Goring raised a " mount " or battery, was protected by a strong framework of timber, and four guns belonging to the Henrietta Maria, pinnace, swept all the approaches to it. The garrison had no great zeal for the King. Within ten days more than half of the soldiers and townsmen had found means to escape. A certain Captain Wiles completely failed to win over his men, who, after much discussion, killed him, the chronicler adding, "Alas, who knows whether, with his body, they slew his soul also ! " Colonel Goring ordered all women and children who dreaded a siege to quit Ports- mouth by noon on the following Sunday. Good cause had women to flee when troopers such as his were in garrison ! Terrible indeed are the accounts given by ancient journalistic scribes — far too bad to be quoted here !

The Parliament acted promptly. The Earl of Warwick was ordered to blockade the harbour with five goodly ships, and he duly arrived on Monday, August 8. Preparations were also made for an attack on the land side. The Commission of Array was not put in force ; but the militia was duly embodied, and one or two com- panies of the County Trained Bands declared for the Parliament against the King. Many Hampshire gentlemen who had promised to bring in reinforcements of horse and foot were stopped on their way to Portsmouth, as was also Sir Kenelm Digby, a great ally and confederate of Goring. Only two days had elapsed before the County Militia and Trained Band, together with the regiment of Foot, of which Sir John Merrick, Sergeant-Major {i.e., Major) General of the Army, and afterwards General of the Ordnance, was Colonel, and one troop of Horse, began to blockade Portbridge, rendering the provisioning of the garrison a matter of great difficulty. Colonel Norton at once raised a force of musketeers, who took post at his house at Southwick Park, at Havant. Sir William Waller and Colonel Urrey, afterwards hanged as a traitor to both parties, were each in command of a troop of horse ; and " there are some 20 firelocks that look Hke desperate souldiers." The Fairfax Correspon- dence speaks of " three troops of horse sent to Portsmouth." On Saturday, August 6, the supplies of provisions from the Isle of Wight were cut off; and on the 8th, as we have already said, the Earl of Warwick arrived with his blockading squadron, which, however, did not fire a single shot during the siege. The Earl of Portland, the Cavalier Governor of the Isle of Wight, was imprisoned; and on August 19 the Earl of Pembroke was appointed to succeed him. Goring now refused to obey a summons to surrender Portsmouth to the authority of the Parliament. On August 10 a gentleman sent by the King with great difficulty brought in a letter containing promises of help and reinforcements, which greatly cheered the garrison, which, on the next day, was 500 strong, " Papists and those ill-affected to Parliament." The Grand Jury at the County Assizes in August presented a most loyal petition to the King, asking for help against the Parliament. One hundred carbines, pistols, saddles, and much ammunition for the garrison were intercepted by the besiegers. Bishop Curie, of Winchester, sent five completely armed horsemen to Portsmouth ; and Dr. Hinsham, a Prebendary of Chichester, sent in a load of wheat. Hackney coachmen were offered commissions on condition of using their horses for the King's service. A countryman who went to sell his butter at Portsmouth was forcibly impressed, as were also many others. Lord Wentworth, Goring's constant associate, was with him at Portsmouth as his Major-General, and afterwards saw service at Cropredy Bridge and at Newbury. His cavalry force was afterwards roughly handled at Ashburton, in Devonshire; and on January 15, 1646, he was in chief command of the cavalrj' belonging to the remnant of the King's army in the west. " Some say Lord Goring is at Portsmouth ; however his soul is there, we may be assured." Colonel Goring sent an officer to SaHsbury, with thirty or forty horse, in search of plunder and reinforcements : but on their arrival they were all captured and imprisoned. Before Sir William Waller reached Portsmouth, the besiegers were commanded by Sir John Merrick. The loyal gentlemen of Hampshire at once raised a besieging force, asking for the authority of Parliament, and offering to hazard their lives and fortunes in the maintenance of the Protestant religion and of the just privileges of Parliament.

Vicars says that the Parliament's forces "first shewed themselves against Goring about Pochdown (Portsdown) in London, way halfe a mile from the bridge, about the loth of August." Goring hereupon withdrew the four guns which guarded the bridge, which was now only protected by ten or twelve troopers, armed with pistols and carbines. About a mile from the bridge (" half a mile from the town ") the wheel of one of the gun-carriages broke, and the gun was left behind, the other three pieces of artillery reaching Portsmouth in safety.

Cruel, indeed, was the pillaging of Portsea Isle, which had then 2000 acres of standing corn upon it. One thousand cattle and more than 1000 sheep were carried off by the all-devouring garrison. Bread, cheese, bacon, and everything shared the same fate, the plunderers not even leaving half-loaves behind them for the starving population. The owners were obliged to drive their own cattle within the walls, and were then themselves retained for military service. Another account says that 350 cattle with many sheep and lambs were taken away to Portsmouth. The soldiers killed the best ; " and the rest they kept within the town upon some ground below the moats that round the town, but the most of them were kept on a marsh near the town," and were guarded by musketeers.

On Wednesday, Thursday, and Friday, August 10-12, this plundering was at its worst. To aid the miserable rustics, the Earl of Warwick landed men from the blockading squadron at the east end of Portsea Isle, with two guns. Goring's horse were thus held in salutary check, while the seamen ferried numerous women and children over to Hayling Island. About 200 sheep and 100 cattle were also taken over to the same place of refuge, ropes being thrown over the horns of the cattle to make them swim after the boats. One hundred and thirty-five quarters of wheat were bound from Fareham to Portsmouth ; but one Master Allen, of Gosport, succeeded in stopping the carts upon the road, and altering their destination, by the aid of a few watchmen. Great was the rage of Goring. He threatened to bombard and utterly destroy Gosport with the guns of Portsmouth ; and it was only after the humble prayers of the Mayor and others, upon their knees, that he consented to desist from his purpose for the sake of the women and children dwelling there. As it was, he terrified the Gosport people exceedingly. His gunner, Meader by name, had already fled from the town ; but he summoned " a cannoneer," and ordered him to fire at Gosport. Upon his refusal the Colonel threatened to run him through, whereupon he shot, "but it was over the houses, and did no harm." In 1688, we are told, " the castle at Gosport is situated on low ground directly facing Portsmouth, which is commanded by twenty cannon."

Communication with the outer world became every day more difficult. Three gallant gentlewomen tried to hire a boat for Stokes Bay, but were brought back in a friendly manner to Sir Thomas Bowyer's house at Chichester, in his coach. Having no man with them, they were strongly suspected to be men in women's apparel. Those were evidently not times for ladies to travel alone. At Havant a traveller was caught with letters from Portsmouth concealed in his boots. The letters were taken from him and given to Colonel Norton, who sent out " a few lusty men with muskets " to arrest the messenger. Another envoy coming from Chichester to Portsmouth through bye-lanes was met by apparently a most boorish rustic, who proved to be an officer in disguise, and who carried him and his despatches to Colonel Norton, at Southwick.

But deliverance was at hand for the unhappy plundered dwellers in Portsmouth and Portsea Island. About 6 p.m. on Friday, August 12, 1642, twenty soldiers made an attack upon Portbridge, not knowing what resistance they would meet with. They found but eight men on guard, one of whom was taken prisoner, the rest making their escape. One who saw the attack said that it would make a faint- hearted man a soldier to see their spirit and resolution. Colonel Urrey and Sir William Waller behaved themselves bravely on this occasion.

A horse was also taken, " the rider hardly escaping, having leapt from his horse, and ran away over hedge and ditch, with his hat cut, and his head a little rased with the sword, but not much hurt." The whole of Portsea Island was thus secured by the Parliament. Two mounts or forts were at once built to guard this important passage. The attack would have taken place before if very wet weather had not confined the besiegers to their quarters at Southwick and Havant. Of the 200 soldiers in garrison on August 15, it was believed that fully one-half would desert at once, if opportunity offered. Vicars says that the townsmen of Portsmouth greatly disrelished the doings of Goring ; and Baker's Chronicle asserts that " the garrison soldiers were so practised on, the Governor had no confidence in them." Intelligence was sent in and out of the town in various ways. A woman arrested at Portbridge had a bundle, which looked like a baby, in the head of which was a black box filled with letters. About 5.0 p,m. on Saturday, August 13, a man and horse were detained at Havant. The man was carrying a suit of clothes with ten letters sewn up in the linings, intended for Mr. Bellingham, a young gentleman who had ridden fully armed from Chichester to Portsmouth, and who was now trying to make his escape from the garrison, keeping a boat in readiness, for which he paid 5s. per diem. The Rev. Mr. Bringsted, parson of Havant, " a most pestilent man," had sent a light horse to Portsmouth. For this Colonel Norton made him pay dearly. Ten light horses were quartered on him, " and lately one of the Scotsmen, being aggrieved with him, fell upon him, basted him well-favouredly, and fain he would be gone ; but they will not let him. So he is forced to stay, waits upon them daily, gives them good words, and tells them that he will gladly lie out of his own bed to make them room ! " He was afterwards deprived of his living, and had his private property sequestered,for which he paid a composition of ;^40. He died broken-hearted. Letters from Lord Wentworth and others in Portsmouth, also fell into the hands of Colonel Norton. On August 15, Captain Browne Bushell, Martin, and Swanley, decided that it was possible, but dangerous, to cut out the Henrietta Maria from under the guns of Portsmouth ; and the same night Captain Bushell, with several long boats, under cover of the darkness, made for the intended prize. She had a crew of fourteen men, two of whom were officers, according to Goring's account ; and Goodwin, the master, was suspected in the garrison of Parliamentary leanings. On the other hand, the newspaper account says that she mounted eight brave pieces of ordnance and had forty soldiers on board, being fitted for service. Goring says that the pinnace surrendered without receiving a blow ; but his opponents say that the crew were overpowered and driven below. At any rate the capture was complete. Sail was at once made, and the Henrietta Maria began to stand out of the harbour. When out of range of the batteries two ships laden with corn for the garrison were hailed, and at once struck their colours. Four days previously the blockading squadron had captured a ship laden with several hundred barrels of powder^ "and 41 most stately horse." The steeds were iforthwith sent up to London, The Henrietta Maria was taken to Southampton, where six of her guns were landed, and brought back to Portsea Island, where three of them were pointed towards Portsmouth, and the others towards " Porchdowne." On Saturday, August 16 (on August 13 according to Vicars), Goring sent Lord Wentworth with all the troopers in garrison, some sixty in number, together with two guns loaded with musket bullets, and two gunners, to bring in the previously abandoned gun. A Parliamentary trooper rode between the guns and the town, having his carbine loaded with two bullets, and shot one of the gunners, he himself escaping uninjured. The gun was, however, brought safely back to Portsmouth. On the same day Colonel Norton's forces marched from Portbridge almost to the gates of Portsmouth, intending to burn (one account says burning) a water mill " that only goeth at the ebbing of the sea," used by the garrison for grinding their corn, "fast by the Town Mount, whereon their Ordnance was planted." This bold advance and Goring's foraging parties were the cause of many skirmishes, " but no great hurt done, though some cannon bullets came very near, and under their horses bellies." At the fight for the mill, one Puritan trooper lost his hat, which fell off"; and another lost his sword, which the captor said was worth £^^ " a ribbon breaking at his wrist." At another time Goring's horse sallying forth were repulsed by Waller's troopers in haste and disorder. A brave Scotchman pursued them even within the gate; where he still fought, in spite of three wounds in the head, until the shutting of the gate made him a prisoner. Goring admired his bravery, procured him the best possible medical advice, gave him three pieces of gold, sent him blindfolded to a place called Newgate, where he was exchanged for a trooper captured at Portbridge, and went off" mounted behind the trumpeter. A contingent from Chichester treated the townsmen very harshly- On August 17 the town was said to have plenty of provision and ammunition, but to have in it only eighty or ninety horses, and no great strength of men, while the besiegers had 240 troopers and 500 infantry. Sir Philip Stapylton writes on August 15 that " two troops of horsemen are gone to Hantshire. One troop afterwards to Portsmouth : some Musqueteers thither."

Colonel Goring and Lord Wentworth, with their troopers in two parties, made a night sortie from Portsmouth as far as the besiegers' works, led by Master Winter, who was an alderman of Portsmouth and the Lieutenant of Southsea Castle. He guided them to the Court of Guard, a mile and a half from the town, close to the farmhouse which was the headquarters of Sir William Waller. The besiegers fought bravely, and Goring was repulsed, with the loss of three men. One of them, Glover, "the Colonel's own man," was killed ; and a servant to Mr. Nicholas Weston, brother to the Earl of Portland, was captured, as was also Winter, their guide, who was mounted upon a horse, worth ;^30, belonging to Lord Wentworth. Goring carried off five musketeer sentries and a trooper, who had been wounded by a thrust in the arm. The five musketeers were induced to work at carrying baskets of earth to the defences ; " but the other stood it out stoutly, and refused to comply." Winter was kept at the Court of Guard (i.e., Main Guard), where his son was allowed to bring him clean linen and other things. The lad carried back to Portsmouth a report, which was carefully spread, that the King was at Broadlands and Romsey, if not nearer, and that a troop of Parliament horse had gone to bring his Majesty to Lady Norton's house at Southwick. Lord Wentworth's servant, disguised as a shepherd, reached Portsmouth, together with his guide, and stated that the King would arrive from Oxford within four days with 12,000 foot, 6500 horse, and 3000 dragoons, and " would liberally reward all their paines and good service. And t'was but need thus to take paines to perswade them, for the greatest part of the Garison- Souldiers were gone away from the towne by night, sometimes 4, sometimes 6, at a time — sometimes more, and sometimes lesse, for a great many nights together ; and the most of his best Gunners were gone from him to the Parliament side, and such as were left of the Garison were even heartless, and did but little, and that on com- pulsion : the expectation of the King's comming, had so tryed and dul'd them, that they were even hopelesse thereof" (Vicars' Chronicle).

Many of the deserters offered to prove their sincerity by serving in forlorn hopes against the town. On August 18 the besiegers asked a parley for the exchange of prisoners. The garrison " knew not the sound of a parley from an alarum," and fired on the trumpeter, but missed him. There were now seven men-of-war of great force blockading Portsmouth, the Paragon, the Ccesar, the Black James, and four others. A letter, written on board the Paragon, says that the greatest harmony was the thundering of cannon, both by day and night. On the arrival of the anxiously expected land forces, a general attack was to be made both by sea and land. The garrison of 200 men could not man the 100 guns which were mounted on the works; and desertions were of nightly occurrence.

The Royalists at Chichester were, in the meantime, not idle in seeking to aid their friends at Portsmouth. On August 19, Sir Thomas Bowyer, Sir William Morley, whose loyalty afterwards cost him £300, Mr. Lewknor, the Recorder, Mr. Thomas Alford, Sir William Goring, and others, demanded the city magazine for the service of the King. Captain Chitty, a staunch adherent of the Parliament, refused to surrender it, and placed a strong guard over it. Mr. Lewknor and the Clergy of the Cathedral made overtures to Colonel Goring, who asked them to aid him to the utmost of their power. On August 24, Chichester declared for the Parliament ; but the Cavaliers there continued to intrigue, the Cathedral Clergy being especially active. The power of the pulpit was energetically used on behalf of the King. Parliament at once ordered that all Popish recusants, all who should put in force the King's Commission of Array, or any who should furnish horses, arms, money, &c., to the King, should be disarmed. Dr. Hinsham, a Prebendary of Chichester, had sent a load of wheat to the Portsmouth garrison ; there was daily drilling in the Close of light cavalry, raised by the Cathedral Clergy, and £1000 in aid of Goring was raised in Chichester. The Mayor, Mr. William Cawley, firmly refused to listen to any Royalist overtures whatever made to him by the Bishop and Clergy.

About this time "Windmill Fortress," near Portsmouth, had a captain, who received 6d. per diem, two soldiers at 6d., and eight mariners at 8d. per diem, the whole annual cost being £109 10s. Portsmouth had a captain with 13 gunners, each of the latter receiving 6d. per diem, and the whole yearly cost was £100. A bulwark called " Sportsmaking " had three gunners, at 6d. per day each. At Ports- mouth town and island there was a new fortress, with a captain at 10d. per diem, who commanded 20 soldiers, who were each paid 8d. a day.

On August 18 the dwellers in Portsmouth could hear the noise of pickaxes and carts in Gosport, " a little village half a mile over the water from the town ; " and Goring could plainly see that, as Vicars says, " the Parliament Forces were framing some workes to make a Fort, whereat the Governour was much troubled, and presently shot at them from all his workes that lay that way-ward, letting fly that night at least 60 bullets, but hurt but one man therewith, and that by his owne folly, for he stood on his workes with a candle and lanthorn in his hand, whereby they had a right aime, and so shot him." Another account says that this man was shot by a sentry in mistake, and that his name was " Peter Baker, a very good ship carpenter." " But for all this, ours desisted not, but went on day and night till they had perfected two plat farmes, the one behind a Barne for 10 pieces of Ordnance, the other behind a pile of Faggots for 2 pieces, though the Governour shot incessantly 14 days and 14 nights to have beaten them off, but could not. Shortly after this a parley was sounded, but without any good successe ; so then they fell to it again, the Governour letting flie his Ordnance apace, day and night, but not with any losse to us (blessed be the Lord for it !), no not of a man or horse. All this time, there being but 2 pieces of Ordnance planted on the small worke of Gosport, behind the Faggots (which is still standing on the beach), which played not at all on the Towne, though they could have done it, but some short time after they shot thence, and killed one of the Garison Souldiers on their Mount, and cut off a French mans leg, near unto him above the knee, to the endangering of his life. The Governour himselfe and the Lord Wentworth in their own persons (and all who could be spared from other duties) wrought all one night to make a Trench on the top of the Mount, that at the sight of the firing of our Ordnance, they might leap down into it, and save themselves from the like shot at Gosport." The soldier who was killed " was carrying of earth on the great mounts at the gate."

" On the Saturday following, ours played soundly from Gosport with our Ordnance, and shot through the tower of the Church (St. Thomas), and brake one of the Bells, and shot again against the same Tower, and that rebounded and fell into the Church, and shot down another top of a house near the Church, and the same Saturday morning they shot at the Water-mill, the Miller whereof commended it (by experience) for a good thing to rise early in the morning, for (as he said) if he had not risen early that morning, he had been kill'd in his bed, for a bullet tooke away a sheete and part of his bed. The reason why they shot so much at the Church-tower, was, for that at the top thereof was their Watch-tower whereby they espied all approaches by sea and by land, and the tolling of a bell gave notice both what ships came by sea, and what number of horse came by land. That Saturday night ours shot but five bullets from Gosport, but every one of them did execution. It was well observed, that in a small time, as ours shot from Gosport, beginning at 4 of the clock on Friday afternoon, and ending at 4 on the Sabbath day in the morning, we did more execution with our two pieces of Ordnance, than the Governour with the Towne Ordnance in 14, or 16, daies, and so many nights, in which they shot, at least, 300 bullets, and kill'd but one man in all that time's, a most remarkable providence of the Lord, we having but two pieces of Ordnance at Gosport, whereas the Ordnance planted against Gosport, from their foure workes, could not be less than thirty pieces of Ordnance." (Vicar's Chronicle.)

A blindfolded trumpeter was, to no purpose, sent by the besiegers to propose a parley on August 27, on which day the siege works were almost ready to open fire. Strong forts had been constructed by Sir John Meldrum, who gained consider- able credit at this time as an engineer. He belonged to a Scotch family, and was a Lieutenant in the 2nd Troop of Horse. He commanded the besiegers at the siege of Newark, where he was signally defeated by Prince Rupert on March 22, 1643. He was mortally wounded at Scarborough in May 1645. Strong forts had been con- structed which commanded the town, and from which it would be easy to batter the walls. On August 27 a soldier, " much drunk," managed to pass the line of the besiegers' sentries, thinking to take the town single-handed. He advanced with a lantern and candle in his hand, the garrison firing more than forty cannon shot in the direction of the light, all of which missed him, " but he, approaching nearer to the walls, was laid asleep with a musket shot." Letters were intercepted which showed that the Chichester Cavaliers were strongly bent upon the relief of Portsmouth.

On Saturday, August 27, Colonel Goring's trumpets from within the town sounded twice for a parley, which took place on the following day. Colonel Goring entertained the Commissioners very nobly, and carried himself like a gentleman. " He asked leave to send a messenger to the King, begging for relief by a certain date. Failing such relief, he said he would willingly give up his allegiance to the King, and hold the town for the Parliament, as he had formerly done. He refused to surrender at once without orders from the King ; and the parley closed without result. Goring threatening to hold out to the last. The Parliamentary Committee promised to send him two fat bucks, which were duly brought into the garrison on the following Thursday, September 2, by a blindfolded trumpeter." On the night of August 27, the cavalry of the garrison attacked the besiegers, but were repulsed. Their leader was slain, two men were wounded, two taken, together with three of the best horses, and the whole party was chased back to the gates. One estimate considered the number of soldiers in the town at this date to be 300. The want of salt and corn now began to make itself felt in the garrison ; and the Parliament despatched 1000 soldiers into Hampshire, who, as they marched, found profitable amusement in pillaging the houses of any whom they chose to consider Papists, and making them fly. The soldiers of the garrison, disappointed of relief, were on the point of mutiny.

On Monday, August 29, the town fired heavily on Gosport and on the Parliament Court of Guard, but the gunners " only made some holes into the tops of houses at (josport, but killed not a man or a horse." On the same day a messenger from Portsmouth brought up to the House of Commons a Roman Catholic Priest, two other ministers, and the Town Clerk of Portsmouth, who were all committed to various prisons until further order. The discontent of the garrison was still further increased when, about four o'clock in the afternoon of September 2, the batteries at Gosport opened their fire, sending, however, only a few cannon shot into Portsmouth.

On Saturday, September 3, after long conference and discussion. Colonel Norton decided to attempt Southsea Castle, originally built by Henry VHI., then considered to be the strongest fort in England for its size. It was surrounded by a wall three or four yards in thickness and about 30 feet in height. The moat was three or four yards deep and five yards broad. The Castle mounted fourteen guns, all of which, with the excep- tion of two, were 12-pounders, besides other smaller pieces of artillery. "It hath dainty chambers, fit to entertain a Prince." Another account says that there were nine or ten guns actually in position, and as many more ready for mounting. The Governor of the Castle was Challender, or Chaloner, a suspected Roman Catholic, whose pay was 2s per diem, his under-captain's pay was is. id., one porter received Sd., and another 6d., the master-gunner 8d. ; fourteen gunners and eleven soldiers at 6d. each. On this Saturday night he remained in Portsmouth carousing with Colonel Goring until 11.00 p.m. Vicars says quaintly: "On Saturday, September the 3rd (this was September 4), in the night, the Parliament forces took Sousey Castle, which lies a mile from the Towne upon the sea, and the way thither is on the sea- sands. The Captain of the Castle, his name was Challmer, who on Saturday had been at Portsmouth, and in the evening went home to the Castle, and his souldiers took horse-loads of provision, bisket, meal, and other necessaries with them. They reported he had more drinke in his head than was befitting such a time and service, and the Townsmen gave out that he had been bribed with money to yield up the Castle, but 'twas false, though the first may be true, yet was not that neither any furtherance to the taking of it." The storming party consisted of two troops of horse, and 400 infantry, of whom at least 80 were musketeers. They had with them "a very good Engineer," and either 20, 35, or 38 scaling ladders (accounts vary). Vicars expressly says that at this time the whole company in the Castle were " but twelve, who all were not able to deal with ours at such a disadvantage." Marching from their quarters about one o'clock on the morning of Sunday, Septem- ber 5, singing psalms as they went, the stormers were exposed to a random fire from the town, which, however, was without effect, and at 2 a.m. they halted for an hour at a distance of two bow-shots from the castle, while a feigned attack upon Portsmouth from Gosport was in progress. Two men were killed in the town, and in addition were heard a very pitiful lamentation. At 3 a.m. (Vicars says about two o'clock in the morning) the storming party advanced, and got between the castle and the sea, all the guns being planted landward. They then jumped into the moat, some men falling and hurting themselves. Major Harbert, Captain Browne Bushell (a York- shireman, who joined the Prince of Wales in the Downs in 1648, which made the Parliament execute him on April 29, 1651), and a trumpeter reached the drawbridge, and the trumpeter sounded a parley, at which the assailants offered fair quarter to the garrison. Governor Challender being something in drink, and withal newly awakened out of his deep sleep, suggested that if they would kindly defer their visit until the morning he would take the matter into consideration. The infantry then scaled the walls, and the Castle was taken without the loss of a man. Challender, with his lieutenant, ensign, and small garrison, were disarmed, and, nothing loth, began to drink the health of the King and Parliament with their new friends, who, at their request, fired either two or three guns as a signal to Goring that the Castle was taken.

Goring replied with at least thirty shot, one of which narrowly missed the leader of the storming party. Ten men retreated behind a piece of timber upon the drawbridge, which was immediately afterwards struck by shot. No one was, however, injured. Some eighty men were left to keep the Castle for the Parliament ; and a mutiny at once broke out in Portsmouth. The mayor, a lieutenant, an ensign, and many soldiers fled from the town, and nearly all the rest of the garrison threw down their arms. Only some sixty were still willing to fight, most of whom were gentlemen and their servants who were unskilled in the use of muskets and in the working of heavy guns. Goring had already seen through a telescope that a ten-gun battery at Gosport would soon open fire. He, therefore, summoned a council of war before daybreak, and at a very early hour a drummer was sent out to sound a parley. The negotiations began at ten o'clock on the same morning, their hostages on both sides being appointed. Out of the town, the Lord Wentworth, Mr. Lewkner, and Mr. Weston, the Earl of Portland's brother. From the Parliament side, Sir William Waller, Sir William Lewis, and Sir William Thomas Jervoise. Ot Sir William Waller we shall hear more. He and Sir William Lewis are thus described by Clarendon : — " Sir William Waller, Lewis, and other eminent persons, who had a trust and confidence in each other, and who were looked upon as the Heads and Governors of the moderate Presbyterian party, who most of them would have been contented, their own security being provided for, that the King should be restored to his full rights, and the Church to its possessions." " Lewis had been very popular and notorious from the beginning."

" The parley was ended about five of the clock in the afternoon, but articles ot agreement not confirmed till seven, that a trumpet came, then, into the Town from the Committee of the Parliament, and then the conclusion was fully made known, and Articles thoroughly agreed on on both sides ; namely, in brief, that the Town and Castle were first to be delivered up to the Parliament, and the Colonel after some few days liberty to dispose of his estate there, to depart the Towne ; which both he, the Lord Wentworth, Mr. Lewkner, and Mr. Weston, and all the Cavaliers with them, their servants, and adherents did accordingly ; and Sir William Waller, and Sir Thomas Jervoise, accompanied with Sir John Meldrum and Colonel Hurrey, together with a troop of horse, and two companies of foot took possession of the town."

The full conditions of surrender were as follows: "Two companies of Parlia- ment troops were to be posted in the town about 6.0 a.m. on September 7 for the prevention of disorders and the safety of the magazines. The garrison to have free passes to any place except to an army in arms against the Parliament, with horses, swords, and pistols, but with no other arms. Twenty days to be allowed for the journey. All stores to be delivered up uninjured. Free passes, without arms, to be granted to those wishing to proceed beyond sea. Those belonging to the old garrison of Portsmouth to remain or depart at their pleasure. An amnesty to be granted to all except deserters from the Parliament. The magazines to be left uninjured." Vicars says : " The greatest cause (as was conceived) that induced the Parliament side to agree to any articles was because the Colonell had vowed and threatened that if the town were taken by forceible assault, he would blow up the magazines of the towne, which lay in it, in two several places ; namely, in the square Tower (on which the semaphore formerly stood) on the sea-side, where were, at least, 1 200 barrels of gunpowder, and very much ammunition ; and at the other end of the Town, near the Gate, about 200 barrels more of gunpowder and some ammu- nition ; and they having power over the magazines, if they had fired them, the whole town had been utterl}^ spoiled, and not one person in the town could have been secured from destruction thereby. But they wisely considered that old military axiom, ' If thine enemy will fly, make him a golden bridge, better be merciful to a few, though offenders, than to ruinate all, both nocents and innocents.' " Carriages were to be provided on payment, if required, for those who wished to leave the town. The prisoners on both sides were to be released, except those that were to be sent up to Parliament, Goring might choose and send a gentleman to the King to report his proceedings. Colonel Hurrey (or Urrey) we shall meet again at Winchester. Goring had bargained for conveyance in a King's ship to Brill in Holland, by way of France, and left Portsmouth on the evening after the surrender, either at six or at nine o'clock at night. His property was shipped on that and the following day. He threw the town key into the harbour, from whence it was dredged up some ninety years ago, began to raise recruits in Holland, and left his garrison to effect a difficult and hazardous march to the King's quarters in the west. Clarendon says, "This blow struck the King to the very heart."

The Marquis of Hertford, with Lord Seymour, Sir Ralph Hopton, Lord Pawlet, and others were at Sherborne, hoping to be able to relieve Portsmouth ; but as soon as they heard of its surrender, they withdrew into Glamorganshire, with the Lords Seymour and Pawlet, leaving Sir Ralph Hopton to march into Cornwall with the cavalry under his command. Sir William Waller, with his forces, marched to join the Earl of Essex, after making himself master of Portsmouth. Heath's Chronicle says that " Portsmouth was taken by Sir William Merrick," who was in command before the arrival of Sir William Waller.

Goring had expelled from Portsmouth a minister named Tach, or Tache, " which said godly minister was brought in again by Sir William Waller and Sir Thomas Jervoise, and confirmed to be preacher to the garrison."

On Tuesday, September 6, 1642, the decomposed body of a brave Dutch trooper, who had been missing for fourteen days, and whose horse had returned with a blood- stained saddle, was discovered by his besieging comrades with £6 still in a pocket. On September 8, two troops of horse reached Portsmouth at noon ; and two companies of foot were posted in Portsea Island. Hay and provender would not have lasted a fortnight longer in the town ; and there was not much butter or cheese in store, but salt and malt were plentiful. There was enough meal and biscuit for at least three months ; and large quantities of salt meat were found in the garrison. The Cavaliers boasted that they would re-take the fortress before Christmas ; but it was considered able to resist an army of 40,000 men. The Earl of Warwick was, moreover, protecting it with " six goodly ships," which had no need to fire a single shot during the siege.

On August 16, it was resolved that " Mr. Nicholas Weston did ill service to the Parliament in the business of Portsmouth and the Isle of Wight." He, Mr- Christopher Lewknor, the Recorder of Chichester, and Goring now lost their seats in Parliament. Sir William Lewis was, on September 8, 1642, appointed Governor of Portsmouth, with the pay of £$ per diem ; and within a few days the High Sheriff, the Committee for Hampshire, the officers, and soldiers received the thanks of Parlia- ment, Captains Martin, Swanley, and Browne Bushell being especially commended by name. Mr. John Lisle, M.P. for Winchester, carried this order of thanks with him, he and Mr, Tulse " of that county " of Hants, having each obtained a pass " to have license to convey into Hampshire six horses, and to bring from thence house- hold stuff without interruption or let." On the eleventh of the preceding month the Mayor of Arundel had received authority " for making stay of suspected persons, horses, or other warlike provisions going to Portsmouth ;" and on October 19, 1642, the Earl of Pembroke — a very wealthy nobleman, who wished to stand well with both sides, and of whom Professor Gardiner says : " No one, indeed, expected wisdom to flow from the lips of Pembroke " — was appointed by the Parliament as Governor of Hants, Wilts, Somerset, Dorset, Devon, Cornwall, and the Isle of Wight. He and the Earl of Essex had power " to raise and conduct forces for the suppression of rebellion and preventing insurrection, and was ordered to pay his soldiers by seizing the rents and revenues of Archbishops, Bishops, Deans, and Chapters, and other notorious delinquents." On October 27, Sir Thomas Jervoise and Robert Wallop were sent into Hants on Parliament service. Two days afterwards the Colleges of Winchester, Westminster, Eton, and Christ Church, Oxford, were authorised by Parliament to retain their revenues ; but on February 22, 1643, an order was passed that the " young scholars " at Westminster, Eton, and Winchester were not bound to wear surplices if they objected to so doing. Sir John Meux, Nicholas Weston, and Sir John Leigh, M.P.s, were summoned to attend the service of the House in August 1642, to answer as to their conduct at Portsmouth.